In recent times, tumor immunotherapy, as an important area of fundamental and applied analysis of tumor immunology, has grown a crucial center of tumor treatment, keeping pace with chemotherapy, targeted treatment, surgery, and radiotherapy.
Non-specific immunotherapy, cancer vaccine, oncolytic virus therapy, angiotensin receptor antibody immune checkpoint blocker, cell therapy, cytokines, and small molecule inhibitors are the main means of immunotherapy, among which the immune checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cells and therapeutic antibodies (monoclonal antibodies and bispecific antibodies) have been widely applied in tumor therapy.
Mechanisms of Tumor Immunotherapy
Normally, the immune system can recognize and clear tumor cells. However, tumor cells have the ability of immune escape, which can inhibit the immune system's effective recognition and killing of tumor cells, so as to generate immune tolerance, and even promote the occurrence and development of a tumor.
Tumor immunotherapy is to enhance the anti-tumor immune response by guiding the immune system to target related antigens, and then attack and kill tumor cells, an approach to control and clear the tumor by restarting and supporting the immune cycle and restoring the natural anti-tumor immune acknowledgment of the human body.
Mechanism of Action (MOA) of Therapeutic Antibodies
The therapeutic antibody is characterized by high affinity, specificity, and low immunogenicity, which recognizes and binds to an antigen receptor specifically to activate the immune system or prevent cancer growth.
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) based immunotherapeutics is the most active in particular, included ligand-receptor cover blocking antibody, immune checkpoint obstructing antibody, cart/NK (natural killer) groups with antibody region, bispecific immunoglobulin and T cell receptor-like an antibody, etc. By now, 66 mAbs have been recommended by the FDA for clinical practice, with over 350 under evaluation.